From somatostatin to octreotide LAR: evolution of a somatostatin analogue

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Published on Sunday, 18 August 2013

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Acromegaly is characterized by overproduction of growth hormone (GH) by the pituitary gland. GH stimulates the synthesis of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and the somatic growth and metabolic dysfunction that characterize acromegaly are a consequence of elevated GH and IGF-I levels. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are rare, slow-growing neoplasms that have usually metastasized by the time of diagnosis. The majority of GEP-NETs are carcinoid tumors whose syndrome is caused by the hypersecretion of biogenic amines, peptides and polypeptides responsible for the principal symptoms of diarrhea and flushing.

METHODS: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for preclinical and clinical studies of octreotide (Sandostatin* ), a potent synthetic somatostatin analogue, in patients with acromegaly or GEP-NETs.

OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the 20 years of clinical experience with octreotide and the impact it has made in patients with acromegaly or GEP-NETs.

RESULTS: Octreotide has proven to be an essential component in the management strategy of acromegaly and GEP-NETs over the past 20 years. The multiple beneficial effects of octreotide throughout the body, combined with its established safety profile (the most common adverse effects are injection-site pain and gastrointestinal events), have made it an appealing option for clinicians. The advent of the long-acting release (LAR) formulation of octreotide provided additional benefits to patients through monthly administration, while maintaining the efficacy and tolerability profile of the daily subcutaneous formulation.

CONCLUSIONS: Octreotide is a potent synthetic somatostatin analogue that has become the mainstay of medical therapy for tumor control in neuroendocrine disorders such as acromegaly and GEP-NETs. The development of octreotide LAR offered a further advancement; less frequent dosing provided valuable benefits in quality of life to patients, with equivalent efficacy and tolerability. Moreover, recent results from the PROMID study have confirmed the antiproliferative effect of octreotide LAR in patients with well-differentiated metastatic GEP-NETs of the midgut. New therapeutic uses of octreotide are currently under investigation in a variety of clinical settings.

 

About this publication.

See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;


 


- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication, 2018 Jul: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2018 Sep: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Aug: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of Somatostatin and Vitamin C on the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Cancer Cell Membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of somatostatin, curcumin, and quercetin on the fatty acid profile of breast cancer cell membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2020 Sep: Two neuroendocrine G protein-coupled receptor molecules, somatostatin and melatonin: Physiology of signal transduction and therapeutic perspectives (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);


 


- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- A retrospective observational study on cases of anaplastic brain tumors treated with the Di Bella Method: A rationale and effectiveness;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- A case of advanced Multiple Myeloma treated with Di Bella Method (DBM) into total remission for 13 years;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Cyclophosphamide plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptin, Retinoids, Melatonin and ACTH in the Treatment of Low-grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas at Advanced Stage: Results of a Phase II Trial;

- Relapse of High-Grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Melatonin, Retinoids, and ACTH;

- Low-grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma at Advanced Stage: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, and Melatonin;

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- Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage III-B-E: a Case Report;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response.