Somatostatin receptors 1 and 5 heterodimerize with epidermal growth factor receptor: agonist-dependent modulation of the downstream MAPK signalling pathway in breast cancer cells

Published on Tuesday, 15 July 2014


The role of somatostatin (SST) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in breast cancer is undisputed; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying their antiproliferative or proliferative effects are not well understood.

We initially confirmed that breast tumour tissues express all five somatostatin receptors (SSTR1-5) and four epidermal growth factor receptors (ErbB1-4).

Subsequently, to gain insight into the function of SSTRs and ErbBs in oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive (MCF-7) or ERalpha-negative (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells, we defined SSTR1, SSTR5 and ErbB1 mRNA and protein expression in these two tumour cell lines.

Consistent with previous studies showing SSTR1/SSTR5 heterodimerization and having seen cell-specific and ligand-selective alterations in receptor expression, we next elucidated whether SSTR1 and SSTR5 functionally interact with ErbB1 using pbFRET analysis.

We subsequently determined the effects of SST and EGF either alone, or in combination, on selected downstream signalling molecules such as erk1/2, p38 and JNK.

Here, we showed that both SST and EGF influenced erk1/2 phosphorylation and that SST modulated the effects of EGF in a cell-specific manner. We also demonstrated agonist-, time and cell-dependent regulation of p38 phosphorylation.

We further investigated modulation of Grb2, SOS, Shc, SH-PTP1 and SH-PTP2. ErbB1 adaptor proteins known to play a role in MAPK activation, Shc, Grb2 and SOS, changed in an agonist- and cell-specific manner whereas, SH-PTP1 and SH-PTP2, adaptor proteins reported to interact with SSTRs, translocated from the cytosol to membrane in a cell-specific manner following SST and/or EGF treatment.

Although several previous studies have shown crosstalk between RTKs and GPCRs, there are no reports describing SSTR (GPCR) modulation of ErbBs (RTK) in breast cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing crosstalk/interactions between SSTRs and ErbBs.


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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication, 2018 Jul: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2018 Sep: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Aug: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of Somatostatin and Vitamin C on the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Cancer Cell Membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Calcium, 2 grams per day, orally);

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature.