Prolactin induces up-regulation of its cognate receptor in breast cancer cells via transcriptional activation of its generic promoter by cross-talk between ERalpha and STAT5

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Published on Monday, 24 January 2022

Abstract

Prolactin (PRL) serves a critical role in breast cancer progression via activation of its cognate receptor.

These studies reveal up-regulation of PRLR gene expression by PRL in absence of estradiol in MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells. PRL/PRLR via activation of STAT5 that binds a GAS-element in the PRLR gene and the participation of ERα stimulates PRLR transcription/expression. PRL/PRLR induces phosphorylation of ERα through the JAK2/PI3K/MAPK/ERK and JAK2/HER2 activated pathways. The increased recruitment of phospho-ERα, induced by PRL to Sp1 and C/EBPβ at PRLR promoter sites is essential for PRL-induced PRLR transcription. This recruitment is prevented by blockade of PRL expression using RNA interference or ERα phosphorylation using specific inhibitors of PI3K and ERK.

Direct evidence is provided for local actions of PRL, independent of estradiol, in the up-regulation of PRLR transcription/expression by an activation-loop between STAT5 and the phospho-ERα/Sp1/C/EBPβ complex with requisite participation of signaling mechanisms. PRL's central role in the up-regulation of PRLR maximizes the action of the endogenous hormone.

This study offers mechanistically rational basis for invasiveness fueled by prolactin in refractory states to adjuvant therapies in breast cancer.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;


 


- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication, 2018 Jul: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2018 Sep: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Aug: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of Somatostatin and Vitamin C on the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Cancer Cell Membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of somatostatin, curcumin, and quercetin on the fatty acid profile of breast cancer cell membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2020 Sep: Two neuroendocrine G protein-coupled receptor molecules, somatostatin and melatonin: Physiology of signal transduction and therapeutic perspectives (from Di Bella's Foundation);


 


- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up.