Invasive Breast Carcinoma with Neuroendocrine Differentiation: A Single-Center Analysis of Clinical Features and Prognosis

Published on Friday, 14 January 2022


Introduction: Invasive breast cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation is a rare subtype of breast malignancy. Due to frequent changes in the definition of these lesions, the correct diagnosis, estimation of exact prevalence, and clinical behaviour of this entity may be challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, clinical features, and outcomes in a large cohort of patients with breast cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation.

Patients: Twenty-seven cases of breast cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation have been included in this analysis. Twenty-one cases were identified by systematic immunohistochemical re-evaluation of 465 breast cancer specimens using the neuroendocrine markers chromogranin A and synaptophysin, resulting in a prevalence of 4.5%. A further six cases were identified by a review of clinical records.

Results: Median age at the time of diagnosis was 61 years. 70% of patients had T2 - 4 tumors and 37% were node-positive. The most common immunohistochemical subtype was HR-positive/HER2-negative (85%). 93% were positive for synaptophysin and 48% for chromogranin A. Somatostatin receptor type 2A status was positive in 12 of 24 analyzed tumors (50%). Neuroendocrine-specific treatment with somatostatin analogues was administered in two patients. The 5-year survival rate was 70%.

Conclusions: Breast cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation is mostly HR-positive/HER2-negative and the diagnosis is made at a higher TNM stage than in patients with conventional invasive breast carcinoma. Moreover, breast cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation was found to be associated with impaired prognosis in several retrospective trials. Due to somatostatin receptor 2A expression, somatostatin receptor-based imaging can be used and somatostatin receptor-targeted therapy can be offered in selected cases.


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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;


- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication, 2018 Jul: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2018 Sep: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Aug: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of Somatostatin and Vitamin C on the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Cancer Cell Membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of somatostatin, curcumin, and quercetin on the fatty acid profile of breast cancer cell membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2020 Sep: Two neuroendocrine G protein-coupled receptor molecules, somatostatin and melatonin: Physiology of signal transduction and therapeutic perspectives (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);


- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer.