Design, Preclinical Evaluation, and Clinical Translation of 68Ga-FAPI-LM3, a Heterobivalent Molecule for PET Imaging of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Published on Tuesday, 09 April 2024


Extensive research has been conducted on radiolabeled fibroblast activation protein (FAP) inhibitors (FAPIs) and p-Cl-Phe-cyclo(d-Cys-Tyr-d-4-amino-Phe(carbamoyl)-Lys-Thr-Cys)d-Tyr-NH2 (LM3) peptides for imaging of FAP and somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2)-positive tumors. In this study, we designed and synthesized a FAPI-LM3 heterobivalent molecule radiolabeled with 68Ga and evaluated its effectiveness in both tumor xenografts and patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).

Methods: The synthesis of FAPI-LM3 was based on the structures of FAPI-46 and LM3. After radiolabeling with 68Ga, its dual-receptor-binding affinity was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Preclinical studies, including small-animal PET and biodistribution evaluation, were conducted on HT-1080-FAP and HT-1080-SSTR2 tumor xenografts. The feasibility of 68Ga-FAPI-LM3 PET/CT in a clinical setting was evaluated in patients with NPC, and the results were compared with those of 18F-FDG.

Results: 68Ga-FAPI-LM3 showed high affinity for both FAP and SSTR2. The tumor uptake of 68Ga-FAPI-LM3 was significantly higher than that of 68Ga-FAPI-46 and 68Ga-DOTA-LM3 in HT-1080-FAP-plus-HT-1080-SSTR2 tumor xenografts. In a clinical study involving 6 NPC patients, 68Ga-FAPI-LM3 PET/CT showed significantly higher uptake than did 18F-FDG in primary and metastatic lesions, leading to enhanced lesion detectability and tumor delineation.

Conclusion: 68Ga-FAPI-LM3 exhibited FAPI and SSTR2 dual-receptor-targeting properties both in vitro and in vivo, resulting in improved tumor uptake and retention compared with that observed with monomeric 68Ga-FAPI and 68Ga-DOTA-LM3. This study highlights the clinical feasibility of 68Ga-FAPI-LM3 PET/CT for NPC imaging.


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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;


- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication, 2018 Jul: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2018 Sep: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Aug: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of Somatostatin and Vitamin C on the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Cancer Cell Membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of somatostatin, curcumin, and quercetin on the fatty acid profile of breast cancer cell membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2020 Sep: Two neuroendocrine G protein-coupled receptor molecules, somatostatin and melatonin: Physiology of signal transduction and therapeutic perspectives (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- Prolactin inhibitors in oncology - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);


- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Pleural Mesothelioma: clinical records on 11 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- Malignant pleural mesothelioma, stage T3-T4. Consideration of a case study;

- Excellent result in a Mesothelioma case treated exclusively with Di Bella Method for over 4 years and still treatment with positive results;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- A retrospective observational study on cases of anaplastic brain tumors treated with the Di Bella Method: A rationale and effectiveness;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide.