Early vitronectin receptor downregulation in a melanoma cell line during all-trans retinoic acid-induced apoptosis

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Published on Friday, 21 February 2014

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence assigns the vitronectin receptors (VnRs) an important role in regulating tumour cell invasion and dissemination. In vivo and in vitro studies document that all trans-retinoid acids (ATRAs) inhibit growth-inducing apoptosis in melanomas.

OBJECTIVES: We have analysed the effects of ATRA treatment on melanoma cell adhesion and motility.

METHODS: Human M14 melanoma cells were treated with 10 micromol L-1 ATRA for different times and stained with rhodamine-phalloidin to analyse the effect of treatment on cytoskeleton organization. Cell adhesion and cell migration assays were performed to analyse the role of VnRs in the ATRA-induced early stages of apoptosis. VnR expression was evaluated by Western blot, immunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry assays.

RESULTS: First, using an annexin V assay, we found that apoptosis was triggered by 48 h with 10 micromol L-1 ATRA exposure. At this time point, decrease in the F-actin polymerization as well as inhibition of cell adhesive ability to vitronectin (Vn) was exerted by ATRA treatment. In the presence of serum, exposure to 10 micromol L-1 ATRA for 48 h produced a dramatic inhibition of the cell adhesion ability that was comparable with that exerted by untreated cells preincubated with anti-alpha(v)beta(3) or anti-alpha(v)beta(5) VnR monoclonal antibodies. Functionally, the treatment of melanoma cells with 10 micromol L-1 ATRA for 48 h causes an inhibition of directional cell migration towards Vn-coated filters. Therefore, we analysed the effect of ATRA on the VnR expression. Both alpha(v)beta(3) and alpha(v)beta(5) VnR levels were reduced upon exposure to 10 micromol L-1 ATRA for 48 h as shown by Western blot, immunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry assays.

CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our data indicate that treatment of M14 melanoma cells with ATRA downregulates VnR expression and that this reduction is closely correlated with the ATRA-dependent inhibition of actin-fibre organization, cell adhesion and migration. Although the mechanism by which ATRA regulates the expression of VnR in M14 melanoma cells needs further elucidation, this system may represent a model for understanding the molecular basis of ATRA therapy in melanoma.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;


 


- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives - Approximately 60mg per day orally: 40mg per day Beta-Carotene/β-Carotene, 10mg per day ATRA and 10mg per day Axerophthol palmitate);

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives) - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Alpha tocopheryl acetate/Vitamin E, approximately 20 grams per day orally);

- Cancer and Vitamin E (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication, 2018 Jul: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2018 Sep: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Aug: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of Somatostatin and Vitamin C on the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Cancer Cell Membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of somatostatin, curcumin, and quercetin on the fatty acid profile of breast cancer cell membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2020 Sep: Two neuroendocrine G protein-coupled receptor molecules, somatostatin and melatonin: Physiology of signal transduction and therapeutic perspectives (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Dihydrotachysterol, Alfacalcidol, synthetic Vitamin D3);

- Vitamin D (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;


 


- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- A retrospective observational study on cases of anaplastic brain tumors treated with the Di Bella Method: A rationale and effectiveness;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response.