Modulation of Radiation-Induced NADPH Oxidases in Rat's Heart Tissues by Melatonin

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Published on Wednesday, 01 September 2021

Abstract

Background: Experimental studies have shown that infiltration of inflammatory cells as well as upregulation of some cytokines play a central role in the development of late effects of ionizing radiation in heart tissues. Evidences have shown that an increased level of TGF-β has a direct correlation with late effects of exposure to ionizing radiation such as chronic oxidative stress and fibrosis. Recent studies have shown that TGF-β, through upregulation of pro-oxidant enzymes such as NOX2 and NOX4, promotes continuous ROS production and accumulation of fibrosis.

Objective: In present study, we aimed to evaluate the expression of NOX2 and NOX4 signaling pathways as well as possible modulatory effects of melatonin on the expression of these genes.

Material and methods: In this experimental study, four groups of 20 rats (5 in each) were used as follows; G1: control; G2: melatonin; G3: radiation; G4: radiation + melatonin. 100 mg/kg of melatonin was administrated before irradiation of heart tissues with 15 Gy gamma rays. 10 weeks after irradiation, heart tissues were collected for real-time Polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Results: Results showed a significant increase in the expression of TGF-β, Smad2, NF-kB, NOX2 and NOX4. The upregulation of NOX2 was more obvious by 20-fold compared to other genes. Except for TGF-β, melatonin could attenuate the expression of other genes.

Conclusion: This study indicated that exposure of rat's heart tissues to radiation leads to upregulation of TGF-β-NOX4 and TGF-β-NOX2 pathways. Melatonin, through modulation of these genes, may be able to alleviate radiation-induced chronic oxidative stress and subsequent consequences.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;


 


- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Melatonin tablets. From 30-40mg/day up to 200mg/day orally in patients with advanced stage of cancer disease and/or patients without respond to traditional treatments);

Melatonin use in cancer patients have started in 1974, when melatonin prepared according to Prof. Di Bella’s formulation [...]. For 11 days was administered to the patient, admitted to the general medical ward at the Maggiore-Pizzardi Hospital in Bologna, very slowly (over approx. 8 hours) and intravenously administered 1000 mg of melatonin for 11 days. During the course of each day, the patient was intravenously administered 4 saline drips of 500 ml, each containing ten 25 mg bottles of freeze-dried melatonin, lasting 2 hours, totaling 1000 mg per day. No other drug of any kind was administered in order to ascertain the effect of the MLT without interference [...]. From Melatonin with adenosine solubilized in water and stabilized with glycine for oncological treatment - technical preparation, effectivity and clinical findings;

- About Melatonin - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication: Melatonin anticancer effects: Review (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication: Key aspects of melatonin physiology: 30 years of research (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication, 2018 Jul: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2018 Sep: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Aug: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of Somatostatin and Vitamin C on the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Cancer Cell Membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of somatostatin, curcumin, and quercetin on the fatty acid profile of breast cancer cell membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2020 Sep: Two neuroendocrine G protein-coupled receptor molecules, somatostatin and melatonin: Physiology of signal transduction and therapeutic perspectives (from Di Bella's Foundation);


 


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- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

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- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

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- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

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- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

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